O Mel do Enxamio

El increíble mundo de las abejas

Qué es una colmena y su estructura

February 16th, 16

Una colmena es el lugar donde habita una colonia de abejas, y…

¿qué es una colonia de abejas?,… pues es el conjunto de abejas que viven en sociedad y que están perfectamente organizadas, en la que cada miembro tiene una función dependiendo de sus características y de su edad, en la que hay una abeja reina, abejas obreras y zánganos. Puede llegar a haber hasta 80.000 miembros.

 

Para que nos hagamos una idea, estas imágenes son de colonias de abejas

honeybee-1181558_1920 bee-674061_1920hiking-bees-365213_1920

 

Y estas otras imágenes son de una colonia de abejas introduciéndose en la colmena. Mira aquí la secuencia completa

encasar colmena 5encasar colmena 7

 

 

 

Hay varios tipos de colmenas:

  hive-985081_1920
  • Colmena natural:

    hechas por las propias abejas, como puede ser el hueco de un árbol, entre las rocas…

  • Colmena rústica:

    pueden ser de paja trenzada, cavidades en recipientes,…este tipo no  tienen panales

  • Colmena moderna:

    la realizada por el hombre para el mejor manejo de la colonia de abejas, con el fin de su mejor cuidado, para obtener miel, jalea real,… La colmena sería la “casa” fabricada por el hombre para alojar a la colonia de abejas. Pueden ser fabricadas en madera, corcho, cerámica, plástico, cemento con arena volcánica (vermiculita)

    • colmenas horizontales:

      de capacidad fija, con una zona para la cámara de cría, que se suele situar en el centro, y a los lados se sitúa las zonas de miel. Ejemplo de este tipo de colmena es la denominada Layens

    • colmenas verticales:

      de capacidad variable, la colmena crece hacia arriba, poniéndole mayor número de alzas encima de la cámara de cría, según se va necesitando. Algunos ejemplos de este tipo es la denominada la Dadant (o industrial), la Langstroth (también llamada perfección, debido a su comodidad es la  más extendida),  se diferencian por las medidas que tiene cada una y tienen diferente funcionalidad

 

 

 

Estructura de una colmena

Para ello nos vamos a centrar en las  más usadas hoy en día, es decir las de uso vertical: Cuando vemos colmenas y no sabemos lo que son, podemos ver que algunas tienen un piso, otras con 2, 3, 4 y hasta 5 pisos. Os vamos a explicar el por qué de esto y cómo se distribuye ule-789082_1920

    • Base o soporte: para asentar toda la colmena y separarla del suelo. Puede ser un bloque de cemento, soporte de hierro, madera,…

 

    • Piso, suelo o fondo de la colmena: es la base de la colmena, donde se apoya la cámara de cría

 

    • Tabla de vuelo: parte que sobresale del fondo de la colmena y que sirve para que las abejas se posen al entrar y salir de la colmena

beekeeping-438533_1920

    • Piquera: es la “puerta” de la colmena, la abertura que hay en la parte de abajo, para que puedan salir y entrar las abejas. Tabla con ranuras que permite la entrada a la colmena, en épocas de escasa floración, se suele cambiar esta, con un menor número de entradas, para evitar que les entren a robar, aislarlas
bees-88242_1920bee-266968_1920 bees-982283_1920

 

    • Cámara de cría: es el primer cajón o alza (el primer piso), es donde están los panales con la cría que se sitúan en el centro

panal con cria

    • Separador de reina: se sitúa entre la cámara de cría y la siguiente alza. Es una rejilla de metal o plástico que tiene la separación justa para que no pueda pasar la reina al piso superior, así siempre nos aseguramos que los panales de la cámara de cría se sitúan abajo y no se mezclan con los panales destinados a la extracción de la miel El separador es opcional, hay mucha gente que no lo pone, aunque nosotros lo recomendamos para un mejor manejo de la colmena

 

    • Alzas melarias: donde se sitúan los panales destinados a la acumulación de la  miel. Dependiendo del tamaño puede haber 8, 9 ò 10 panales por cada alza, y también dependiendo de la altura puede haber tres dimensiones posibles según la preferencia del apicultor.

       

       El tamaño estándar en el que se pueden llegar a recoger 22-23 kg de miel, el tamaño tres cuartos en el que se puede recoger unos 15 kg, y la media alza que sacará unos 11 kg de miel.

       

      A medida que se va llenando el alza con la miel, podemos ponerle inmediatamente encima otra alza melaria para que sigan acumulando más miel (ésta es la razón por la que vemos colmenas con distintas alturas)

honey-bee-896701_1920

 

    • Panales o cuadros móviles: donde las abejas irán depositando la miel. Dependiendo del tamaño del alza también podemos encontrarnos con los tres tamaños correspondientes con la altura (panal estándar, panal tres cuartos y panal para media alza)

honey-bee-643878_1920

 

    • Entretapa o entretecho: entre el techo y la última alza, esta parte depende del tipo de colmena. Su función es formar una cámara de aire para un mejor aislamiento y también para poder poner alimento extra en épocas que puede ser necesario un aporte extra de comida
    •  

    • Techo: la parte superior y la que cierra la colmena. Puede tener forma de tejado o puede ser una chapa horizontal de diversos materiales, aunque lo más usado es que esté recubierto de una chapa zincada

colmena partes

Estas partes suelen ser realizadas en:

  • maderas más duras para el piso y el techo,
  • maderas semiduras para las alzas
  • maderas semiduras y blandas  para los panales

 

Esperamos que haya sido de vuestro interés, y nos vemos en breve en una próxima publicación 😉

Written by: enxamio, category: Colmenas

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